CAUCASUS

The Caucasus is a vast mountain area consisting of many ranges. It stretches for 1.500 kilometers from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea The conventional boundary dividing Europe from Asia apportions the whole of the Caucasus to the Asian continent Among the mountain ranges practically parallel to one another, the principal one. the axis of the whole Caucasus, is the Glavny or Vodorazdelny Range whose highest peaks reach over 5.000 meters. These are: Dykh-Tau, Koshtan-Tau, Shkhara and other giants. To the north of the Glavny Range and in the same direction runs the Peredovoi or Bokovol Range. In the latter towers the towheaded volcano Elbrus. Its western cone is 5.642 meters- the summit of the Caucasus. The central, highest part of this moun-tain system, is a realm of eternal snow. glaciers and imposing rocky massifs. Further to the north, and gradually getting lower, run the Skalisty (up to 3.500 meters). Melovoi (or Past-bishchny) and Lesisty (or Chorny) ranges, composed of limes of Cretace-ous age, tertiary conglomerates and sandstone.
The mountains were populated since time immemorial, just like the most fertile of the "promised" lands. Archaeological mounuments have been discovered on the territory of Kabar-dino-Balkaria embracing practically all the ages in the history of mankind. The archaeological finds near the villages of Verkhny Chegem and Loshkuta show that people lived here during the Eolithic and the Paleolithic periods of the Stone Age.
Every year science is enriched with new facts about the succession of cultures and peoples Arms, implements of labour, and jewelry of the Bronze Age are found side by side with Scythian ceramics, while the cultural layers of the Alan period have preserved works of applied art and various arms vastly diversified in form, purpose and orna-ment
The development of the peoples of the North Caucasus is very complex, rich in events, and so far not fully studied
The multinational composition of the population reflects those epochs when the migration routes of various tribes and peoples came to cross here.

KABARDINO-BALKARIYA

Kabardino-Balkariya is situated on the northern slopes of the central part of the Main Caucasian Ridge and the adjacent plains. The Republic is not very large, squaring 12,500 sq.km. only. But the Nature hasn't been sparing with her gifts to Kabardino-Balkariya. The Republic's mineral wealth, flora and fauna are very rich. All the five-thousand-metre peaks, except for Kazbek, the largest glaciers and troubled rivers are in the territory of our Republic. Mountain forests and Alpine meadows are splendid. Unique Blue Lakes, the famous Bezengi Wall, representing 13 kilometres of ice, snow and rocks of over 4,000 metres height, the Chegem Waterfalls with their rolling streams, five most picturesque gorges in Prielbrusye (The Elbrus Region), the internationally-recognized centre of mountaineering, mountain-hiking, summer and winter tourism - all this strikes anyone's eye and stamps on the memory of those, who has ever been there.

Twin- headed Mountain Elbrus, the highest and most beautiful peak of Caucasus, of which songs and legends have been composed, and also glorified by Pushkin and Lermontov is situated there, too.

But nature has been generous to Kabardino-Balkaria. It has plenty of natural resources; the mountain forests are truly splendid, and vegetation lush on the apline meadows. Pastures lie below the forest zone, in the foothills. Right from the northern foot of Elbrus starts the gently sloping and undulating plateau of Bechasyn, cut in all directions by deep canyons of the rivers rising among glaciers, and crossed only here and there by a few highways, insignificant on its vast spaces. From spring to late autumn Hocks of sheep and herds of thoroughbred cattle and horses graze here.

NALCHIK

Routes to each of the gorges and all the beauties of the Republic start in Nalchik, the Capital of Kabardino-Balkariya.Nalchik is one of the biggest economical, administrative and cultural centres of the North Caucasus, the famous health resort, is situated in the picturesque surroundings at the foothills of the Main Caucasian Ridge at the altitude of 512 metres above sea level. Territory of Nalchik is 131 square kilometres, it's population(by January 1, 1992) equals 280 thousand people. Total square of the town's trees and shrubs is 991 hectares